Professor Saul Cunningham

B.Sc. Hons (Zoology) Monash, Ph.D. (Ecology) University of Connecticut, USA
Director

Saul’s first experience of research was as an honours student at Monash University. He then received a Fulbright award to support Ph.D. studies in the USA with field work in Costa Rica. Having been awarded his Ph.D. in 1995 he returned home to Australia and commenced post-doctoral projects at Macquarie University, before joining CSIRO in Canberra as a research scientist. Over a 17 year period with CSIRO Saul developed a research program focusing on the challenge of maintaining biodiversity in landscapes dedicated to agricultural production. He has worked with farming industry groups, local landholder groups, and a wide network of international colleagues with shared interests.

In 2015 the Ecological Society of Australia honoured Saul with the “Australian Ecology Research Award.” He was a contributor to the Intergovernmental Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) assessment report on Pollination and Food production, published in 2016.

Saul has been director of the Fenner School of Environment and Society since 2017.

Research interests

Saul Cunningham is interested in finding ways that we can manage farming landscapes to preserve biodiversity while supporting production. In pursuing this overarching challenge his work ranges across specific questions regarding the fundamental determinants of diversity, methods of ecological restoration, management to increase farm productivity, and more. He has worked extensively on crop pollination, which is an input to agricultural production that has been poorly understood and which generally depends on wild insects living in the agricultural landscape.

Areas of expertise

  • Applied ecology
  • Conservation biology
  • Crop pollination
  • Agricultural landscapes
  • King, A, Melbourne, B, Davies, K et al 2018, 'Spatial and temporal variability of fragmentation effects in a long term, eucalypt forest fragmentation experiment', Landscape Ecology, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 609-623pp.
  • Kay, G, Tulloch, A, Barton, P et al 2018, 'Species co-occurrence networks show reptile community reorganization under agricultural transformation', Ecography, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 113-125.
  • Yong, D, Barton, P, Ikin, K et al 2018, 'Cross-taxonomic surrogates for biodiversity conservation in human-modified landscapes - A multi-taxa approach', Biological Conservation, vol. 224, pp. 336-346pp.
  • Ross, C, Barton, P, McIntyre, S et al 2017, 'Fine-scale drivers of beetle diversity are affected by vegetation context and agricultural history', Austral Ecology, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 831-843.
  • Willcox, B, Aizen, M, Cunningham, S et al 2017, 'Deconstructing pollinator community effectiveness', Current Opinion in Insect Science, vol. 21, pp. 98-104pp.
  • Bianchi, F, Walters, B, Cunningham, S et al 2017, 'Landscape-scale mass-action of spiders explains early-season immigration rates in crops', Landscape Ecology, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1257-1267pp.
  • Carrie, R, Andrieu, E, Cunningham, S et al 2017, 'Relationships among ecological traits of wild bee communities along gradients of habitat amount and fragmentation', Ecography, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 85-97pp.
  • Resasco, J, Tuff, K, Cunningham, S et al 2017, 'Generalist predator's niche shifts reveal ecosystem changes in an experimentally fragmented landscape', Ecography, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 1209-1219.
  • Garibaldi, L, Gemmill-Herren, B, D'Annolfo, R et al 2017, 'Multidimensional Performance of Farming Approaches: A Reply to Mehrabi et al', Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 721-722pp.
  • Peterson, E, Cunningham, S, Thomas, M et al 2017, 'An assessment framework for measuring agroecosystem health', Ecological Indicators, vol. 79, pp. 265-275.
  • Kay, G, Mortelliti, A, Tulloch, A et al 2017, 'Effects of past and present livestock grazing on herpetofauna in a landscape-scale experiment', Conservation Biology, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 446-458.
  • Gibb, H, Retter, B, Cunningham, S et al 2017, 'Does wing morphology affect recolonization of restored farmland by ground-dwelling beetles?', Restoration Ecology, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 234-242.
  • Cunningham, S 2017, 'Human welfare and its connection to nature: What have we learned from crop pollination studies?', Austral Ecology, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 2-8pp.
  • Garibaldi, L, Gemmill-Herren, B, D'Annolfo, R et al 2017, 'Farming Approaches for Greater Biodiversity, Livelihoods, and Food Security', Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 68-80pp.
  • Barton, P, Evans, M, Foster, C et al 2017, 'Environmental and spatial drivers of spider diversity at contrasting microhabitats', Austral Ecology, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 700-710.
  • Potts, S, Imperatriz Fonseca, V, Ngo, H et al 2016, The assessment report on Pollinators, Pollination and Food Production: Summary for Policy Makers.
  • Barton, P, McIntyre, S, Evans, M et al 2016, 'Substantial long-Term effects of carcass addition on soil and plants in a grassy eucalypt woodland', Ecosphere, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. -.
  • Cunningham, S 2016, 'Can recognition of ecosystem services help biodiversity conservation?', in Ansell, D., Gibson, F., Salt, D. (ed.), Learning from Agri-Environment Schemes in Australia. Investing in Biodiversity and Other Ecosystem Services on Farms, ANU Press, Canberra, Australia, pp. 107-116.
  • De Palma, A, Abrahamczyk, S, Aizen, M et al 2016, 'Predicting bee community responses to land-use changes: Effects of geographic and taxonomic biases', Scientific Reports, vol. 6, no. 31153, pp. 31153-31153.
  • Nguyen, K, Cuneo, P, Cunningham, S et al 2016, 'Ecological effects of increasing time since invasion by the exotic African olive (Olea europaea ssp cuspidata) on leaf-litter invertebrate assemblages', Biological Invasions, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 1689-1699.
  • Cunningham, S, Fournier, A, Neave, M et al 2016, 'Improving spatial arrangement of honeybee colonies to avoid pollination shortfall and depressed fruit set', Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 350-359pp.
  • Rader, R, Bartomeus, I, Garibaldi, L et al 2016, 'Non-bee insects are important contributors to global crop pollination', PNAS - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 146-151.
  • Mcclenahan, J, Melbourne, B, Cunningham, S et al 2016, 'Differential and delayed response of two ant species to habitat fragmentation via the introduction of a pine matrix', Ecological Entomology, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 554-561.
  • Dicks, L, Viana, B, Bommarco, R et al 2016, Ten policies for pollinators, pp. 975-976.
  • Kay, G, Barton, P, Driscoll, D et al 2016, Incorporating regional-scale ecological knowledge to improve the effectiveness of large-scale conservation programmes. Animal Conservation, 19, 515-525.
  • Lakeman Fraser, P, Ewers, R & Cunningham, S 2015, 'The ecological consequences of habitat loss and fragmentation in New Zealand and Australia', in A. Stow, N. Maclean, G.I. Holwell (ed.), Austral Ark: The State of Wildlife in Australia and New Zealand, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, pp. 45-64.
  • Garibaldi, L, Bartomeus, I, Bommarcom, R et al 2015, 'Trait matching of flower visitors and crops predicts fruit set better than trait diversity', Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1436-1444.
  • Bianchi, F, Walters, B, ten Hove, A et al 2015, 'Early-season crop colonization by parasitoids is associated with native vegetation, but is spatially and temporally erratic', Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment, vol. 207, pp. 10-16.
  • Burns, A, Taylor, G, Watson, D et al 2015, 'Diversity and host specificity of Psylloidea (Hemiptera) inhabiting box mistletoe, Amyema miquelii (Loranthaceae) and three of its host Eucalyptus species', Austral Entomology, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 306-314.
  • Gibb, H, Stoklosa, J, Warton, D et al 2015, 'Does morphology predict trophic position and habitat use of ant species and assemblages?', Oecologia, vol. 177, no. 2, pp. 519-531.
  • Prober, S, Stol, J, Piper, M et al 2014, 'Enhancing soil biophysical condition for climate-resilient restoration in mesic woodlands', Ecological Engineering, vol. 71, pp. 246-255.
  • Xie, H, Ash, J, Linde, C et al 2014, 'Himalayan-Tibetan plateau uplift drives divergence of polyploid poppies: Meconopsis viguier (Papaveraceae)', PLOS ONE (Public Library of Science), vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 1-10.
  • Prober, S, Stol, J, Piper, M et al 2014, 'Towards climate-resilient restoration in mesic eucalypt woodlands: characterizing topsoil biophysical condition in different degradation states', Plant and Soil, vol. 383, no. 1-2, pp. 231-244.
  • Xie, H, Cunningham, S, Yeates, D et al 2014, 'A new sericomyiine flower fly from China (Diptera: Syrphidae)', Zootaxa, vol. 3860, no. 1, pp. 81-86.
  • Macdonald, B, Farrell, M, Tuomi, S et al 2014, 'Carrion decomposition causes large and lasting effects on soil amino acid and peptide flux', Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 69, no. -, pp. 132-140.
  • Barton, P, Colloff, M, Pullen, K et al 2013, 'Arthropod assemblages in a focal tree species (Eucalyptus microcarpa) depends on the species mix in restoration plantings', Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 2091-2110.
  • Barton, P, Colloff, M, Pullen, K et al 2013, 'Grassland area determines beetle assemblage dissimilarity from surrounding floodplain forest', Journal of Insect Conservation: an international journal devoted to the conservation of insects, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1209-1219.
  • Barton, P, Cunningham, S, Manning, A et al 2013, 'The spatial scaling of beta diversity', Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 639-647.
  • Lindenmayer, D & Cunningham, S 2013, 'Six principles for managing forests as ecologically sustainable ecosystems', Landscape Ecology, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 1099-1110.
  • Gibb, H & Cunningham, S 2013, 'Restoration of trophic structure in an assemblage of omnivores, considering a revegetation chronosequence', Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 449-458.
  • Cunningham, S, Attwood, S, Bawa, K et al 2013, 'To close the yield-gap while saving biodiversity will require multiple locally relevant strategies', Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment, vol. 173, no. 1, pp. 20-27.
  • Barton, P, Cunningham, S, Lindenmayer, D et al 2013, 'The role of carrion in maintaining biodiversity and ecological processes in terrestrial ecosystems', Oecologia, vol. 171, no. 4, pp. 761-772.
  • Cunningham, S & Le Feuvre, D 2013, 'Significant yield benefits from honeybee pollination of faba bean (Vicia faba) assessed at field scale', Field Crops Research, vol. 149, pp. 269-275.
  • Cunningham, S, Schellhorn, N, Marcora, A et al 2013, 'Movement and phenology of bees in a subtropical Australian agricultural landscape', Austral Ecology, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 456-464.
  • Bianchi, F, Schellhorn, N & Cunningham, S 2013, 'Habitat functionality for the ecosystem service of pest control: reproduction and feeding sites of pests and natural enemies', Agricultural and Forest Entomology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 12-23.
  • Lin, B, Macfadyen, S, Renwick, A et al 2013, 'Maximizing the Environmental Benefits of Carbon Farming through Ecosystem Service Delivery', BioScience, vol. 63, no. 10, pp. 793-803.
  • Rader, R, Edwards, W, Westcott, D et al 2013, 'Diurnal effectiveness of pollination by bees and flies in agricultural Brassica rapa: Implications for ecosystem resilience', Basic and Applied Ecology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 20-27.
  • Garibaldi, L, Steffan-Dewenter, I, Winfree, R et al 2013, 'Wild Pollinators Enhance Fruit Set of Crops Regardless of Honey Bee Abundance', Science, vol. 339, no. 6127, pp. 1608-1611.
  • Kennedy, C, Lonsdorf, E, Neel, M et al 2013, 'A global quantitative synthesis of local and landscape effects on wild bee pollinators in agroecosystems', Ecology Letters, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 584-599.
  • Barton, P, Cunningham, S, Macdonald, B et al. 2013. Species traits predict assemblage dynamics at ephemeral resource patches created by carrion. PLOS ONE, 8(1), e53961.
  • Cunningham, S, Duncan, D & Driscoll, D 2012, 'Land use intensification impacts on biodiversity in the mallee/wheat landscape of Central NSW', in David Lindenmayer, Saul Cunningham and Andrew Young (ed.), Land Use Intensification: Effects on Agriculture, Biodiversity and Ecological Processes, CSIRO Publishing, Australia, pp. 93-103.
  • Gibb, H, Durant, B & Cunningham, S 2012, 'ARTHROPOD COLONISATION OF NATURAL AND EXPERIMENTAL LOGS IN AN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE EFFECTS OF HABITAT ISOLATION SEASON AND EXPOSURE TIME', Ecological Management and Restoration, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 166-174.
  • Lentini, P, Martin, T, Gibbons, P et al 2012, 'Supporting wild pollinators in a temperate agricultural landscape: Maintaining mosaics of natural features and production', Biological Conservation, vol. 149, no. 1, pp. 84-92.
  • Elliott, C, Young, A, Cunningham, S et al 2012, 'Landscape context affects honeyeater communities and their foraging behaviour in Australia: Implications for plant pollination', Landscape Ecology, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 393-404.
  • Lindsay, E & Cunningham, S 2012, 'Effects of exotic grass invasion on spatial heterogeneity in the ground-layer of grassy woodlands', Biological Invasions, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 203-213.
  • Rader, R, Howlett, B, Cunningham, S et al 2012, 'Spatial and temporal variation in pollinator effectiveness: do unmanaged insects provide consistent pollination services to mass flowering crops?', Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 126-134.
  • Bianchi, F & Cunningham, S 2012, 'Unravelling the role of mate density and sex ratio in competition for pollen', Oikos, vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 219-227.
  • Macfadyen, S, Cunningham, S, Costamagna, A et al 2012, 'Managing ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation in agricultural landscapes: are the solutions the same?', Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 690-694.
  • Lindenmayer, D, Cunningham, S & Young, A 2012, 'Perspectives on land use intensification and biodiversity conservation', in David Lindenmayer, Saul Cunningham and Andrew Young (ed.), Land Use Intensification: Effects on Agriculture, Biodiversity and Ecological Processes, CSIRO Publishing, Australia, pp. 137-149pp.
  • Lindenmayer, D, Cunningham, S & Young, A 2012, 'Land use intensification: A challenge for humanity', in David Lindenmayer, Saul Cunningham and Andrew Young (ed.), Land Use Intensification: Effects on Agriculture, Biodiversity and Ecological Processes, CSIRO Publishing, Australia, pp. 1-4pp.
  • Lindenmayer, D, Cunningham, S & Young, A, eds, 2012, Land Use Intensification: Effects on Agriculture, Biodiversity and Ecological Processes, CSIRO Publishing, Australia.
  • Barton, P, Gibb, H, Manning, A et al 2011, 'Morphological traits as predictors of diet and microhabitat use in a diverse beetle assemblage', Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 301-310.
  • Barton, P, Manning, A, Gibb, H et al 2011, 'Experimental reduction of native vertebrate grazing and addition of logs benefit beetle diversity at multiple scales', Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 943-951.
  • Rader, R, Edwards, W, Westcott, D et al 2011, 'Pollen transport differs among bees and flies in a human-modified landscape', Diversity and Distributions, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 519-529.
  • Burns, A, Cunningham, S & Watson, D 2011, 'Arthropod assemblages in tree canopies: a comparison of orders on box mistletoe (Amyema miquelii) and its host eucalypts', Australian Journal of Entomology, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 221-230.
  • Garibaldi, L, Aizen, M, Klein, A et al 2011, 'Global growth and stability of agricultural yield decrease with pollinator dependence', PNAS - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 108, no. 14, pp. 5909-5914.
  • Lindsay, E & Cunningham, S 2011, 'Native Grass Establishment in Grassy Woodlands with Nutrient Enriched Soil and Exotic Grass Invasion', Restoration Ecology, vol. 19, no. 101, pp. 131-140.
  • Gibb, H & Cunningham, S 2011, 'Habitat contrasts reveal a shift in the trophic position of ant assemblages', Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 119-127.
  • Garibaldi, L, Steffan-Dewenter, I, Kremen, C et al 2011, 'Stability of pollination services decreases with isolation from natural areas despite honey bee visits', Ecology Letters, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1062-1072.
  • Gibb, H & Cunningham, S 2010, 'Revegetation of farmland restores function and composition of epigaeic beetle assemblages', Biological Conservation, vol. 143, no. 3, pp. 677-687.
  • Arthur, A, Li, J, Henry, S et al 2010, 'Influence of woody vegetation on pollinator densities in oilseed Brassica fields in an Australian temperate landscape', Basic and Applied Ecology, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 406-414.
  • Colloff, M, Pullen, K & Cunningham, S 2010, 'Restoration of an Ecosystem Function to Revegetation Communities: The Role of Invertebrate Macropores in Enhancing Soil Water Infiltration', Restoration Ecology, vol. 18, no. S1, pp. 65-72.
  • Barton, P, Manning, A, Gibb, H et al 2010, 'Fine-scale heterogeneity in beetle assemblages under co-occurring Eucalyptus in the same subgenus', Journal of Biogeography, vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 1927-1937.
  • Baskorowati, L, Moncur, M, Cunningham, S et al 2010, 'Reproductive biology of Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae) 2. Incompatibility and pollen transfer in relation to the breeding system', Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 384-391.
  • Gibb, H & Cunningham, S 2009, 'Does the availability of arboreal honeydew determine the prevalence of ecologically dominant ants in restored habitats?', Insectes Sociaux, vol. 56, pp. 405-412.
  • Barton, P, Manning, A, Gibb, H et al 2009, 'Conserving ground-dwelling beetles in an endangered woodland community: Multi-scale habitat effects on assemblage diversity', Biological Conservation, vol. 142, no. 8, pp. 1701-1709.
  • Rader, R, Howlett, B, Cunningham, S et al 2009, 'Alternative pollinator taxa are equally efficient but not as effective as the honeybee in a mass flowering crop', Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 46, pp. 1080-1087.
  • Garibaldi, L, Aizen, M, Cunningham, S et al 2009, 'Pollinator shortage and global crop yield', Communicative & Integrative Biology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 37-39.
  • Cunningham, S, Pullen, K & Colloff, M 2009, 'Whole-tree sap Xow is substantially diminished by leaf herbivory', Oecologia, vol. 158, no. 4, pp. 633-640.
  • Lindsay, E & Cunningham, S 2009, 'Livestock grazing exclusion and microhabitat variation affect invertebrates and litter decomposition rates in woodland remnants', Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 258, pp. 178-187.
  • Aizen, M, Garibaldi, L, Cunningham, S et al 2009, 'How much does agriculture depend on pollinators? Lessons from long-term trends in crop production', Annals of Botany, vol. 103, pp. 1579-1588.
  • Broadhurst, L, Lowe, A, Coates, D et al 2008, 'Seed supply for broadscale restoration: maximizing evolutionary potential', Evolutionary Applications, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 587-597.
  • Ricketts, T, Regetz, J, Steffan-Dewenter, I et al 2008, 'Landscape effects on crop pollination services: are there general patterns?', Ecology Letters, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 499-515.
  • Aizen, M, Garibaldi, L, Cunningham, S et al 2008, 'Long-Term Global Trends in Crop Yield and Production Reveal No Current Pollination Shortage but Increasing Pollinator Dependency', Current Biology, vol. 18, no. 20, pp. 1572-1575.
  • Mokany, A, Wood, J & Cunningham, S 2008, 'Effect of shade and shading history on species abundances and ecosystem processes in temporary ponds', Freshwater Biology, vol. 53, no. 10, pp. 1917-1928.
  • Bourne, M, Nicotra, A, Colloff, M et al 2008, 'Effect of soil biota on growth and allocation by Eucalyptus microcarpa', Plant and Soil, vol. 305, no. 1-2, pp. 145-156.
  • Cunningham, S & Blanche, K 2008, 'Services and disservices from insects in agricultural landscapes of the Atherton Tableland', in Nigel E. Stork and Stephen M. Turton (ed.), Living in a Dynamic Tropical Forest Landscape, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Malden, United States, pp. 240-250.
  • Klein, A, Cunningham, S, Bos, M et al 2008, 'Advances in pollination ecology from tropical plantation crops', Ecology, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 935-943.
  • Cunningham, S & Murray, W 2007, 'Average body length of arboreal and aerial beetle (Coleoptera) assemblages from remnant and plantation Eucalyptus forests in southwestern Australia', Oecologia, vol. 151, no. 2, pp. 303-312.
  • Cook, D, Thomas, M, Cunningham, S et al 2007, 'Predicting the economic impact of an invasive species on an ecosystem service', Ecological Applications, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1832-1840.
  • Klein, A, Vaissiere, B, Cane, J et al 2007, 'Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops', Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences, vol. 274, pp. 303-313.
  • Blanche, K, Hughes, M, Ludwig, J et al 2006, 'Do flower-tripping bees enhance yields in peanut varieties grown in north Queensland?', Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, vol. 46, pp. 1529-1534.
  • Stokes, K & Cunningham, S 2006, 'Predictors of recruitment for willows invading riparian environments in south-east Australia: implications for weed management', Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 909-921.
  • Cunningham, S & Floyd, R 2006, 'Toona ciliata that suffer frequent height-reducing herbivore damage by a shoot-boring moth (Hypsipyla robusta) are taller', Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 225, no. 1-3, pp. 400-403.
  • Blanche, K, Ludwig, J & Cunningham, S 2006, 'Proximity to rainforest enhances pollination and fruit set in orchards', Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1182-1187.
  • Cunningham, S, Floyd, R & Weir, T 2005, 'Do Eucalyptus plantations host an insect community similar to remnant Eucalyptus forest?', Austral Ecology, vol. 30, pp. 103-117.
  • Cunningham, S, Floyd, R, Griffiths, M et al 2005, 'Patterns of host use by the shoot-borer Hypsipyla robusta (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) comparing five Meliaceae tree species in Asia and Australia', Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 205, no. 1-3, pp. 351-357.
  • Blanche, K & Cunningham, S 2005, 'Rain Forest Provides Pollinating Beetles for Atemoya Crops', Journal of Economic Entomology, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 1193-1201.
  • Cunningham, S & Floyd, R 2004, 'Leaf compositional differences predict variation in Hypsipyla robusta damage to Toona ciliata in field trials', Canadian Journal of Forest Research, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 642-648.
  • Tschapka, M & Cunningham, S 2004, 'Flower Mites of Calyptrogyne ghiesbreghtiana (Arecaceae): Evidence for Dispersal Using Pollinating Bats', Biotropica, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 377-381.
  • Duncan, D, Nicotra, A & Cunningham, S 2004, 'High self-pollen transfer and low fruit set in buzz-pollinated Dianella revoluta (Phormiaceae)', Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 185-193.
  • Thomson, V, Nicotra, A & Cunningham, S 2004, 'Herbivory differentially affects male and female reproductive traits of Cucumis sativus', Plant Biology, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 621-628.
  • Duncan, D, Nicotra, A, Wood, J et al 2004, 'Plant isolation reduces outcross pollen receipt in a partially self-compatible herb', Journal of Ecology, vol. 92, no. 6, pp. 977-985.
  • Thomson, V, Cunningham, S, Ball, M et al 2003, 'Compensation for herbivory by Cucumis sativus through increased photosynthetic capacity and efficiency', Oecologia, vol. 134, no. 2, pp. 167-175.
  • Cunningham, S, FitzGibbon, F & Heard, T 2002, 'The future of pollinators for Australian agriculture', Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 893-900.
  • Cunningham, S 2000, 'Depressed pollination in habitat fragments causes low fruit set', Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences, vol. 267, pp. 1149-1152.
  • Cunningham, S 2000, 'What determines the number of seed produced in a flowering event? A case study of Calyptrogyne ghiesbreghtiana (Arecaceae)', Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 48, pp. 659-665.
  • Cunningham, S 2000, 'Effects of habitat fragmentation on the reproductive ecology of four plant species in Mallee woodland', Conservation Biology, vol. 14, pp. 758-768.
  • Kolesik, P & Cunningham, S 2000, 'A new gall midge species (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) infesting fruit of punty bush, Senna artemisioides (Caesalpiniaceae) in Australia.', Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 121-126.
  • Peterson, G, Cunningham, S, Deutsch, L et al 2000, 'The Risks and Benefits of Genetically Modified Crops: A Multidisciplinary Perspective', Conservation Ecology, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 13.
  • Cunningham, S, Summerhayes, B & Westoby, M 1999, 'Evolutionary divergences in leaf structure and chemistry, comparing rainfall and soil nutrient gradients', Ecology, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 569-588.
  • Cunningham, S 1997, 'The effect of light environment, leaf area, and stored carbohydrates on inflorescence production by a rain forest understory palm', Oecologia, vol. 111, pp. 36-44.
  • Cunningham, S 1997, 'Predator control of seed production by a rain forest understory palm', Oikos, vol. 79, pp. 282-290.
  • Cunningham, S 1996, 'Pollen supply limits fruit initiation by a rain forest understorey palm', Journal of Ecology, vol. 84, pp. 185-194.
  • Cunningham, S 1995, 'Ecological constraints on fruit initiation by Calyptrogyne ghiesbreghtiana (Arecaceae): floral herbivory, pollen availability and visitation by pollinating bats', American Journal of Botany, vol. 82, no. 12, pp. 1527-1536.
  • Cunningham, S 1995, 'Problems with null models in the study of phylogenetic radiation', Evolution, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1292-1294.
  • Cunningham, S 1994, 'Measuring the relationship between floral duration and fruit set for Hamelia patens (Rubiaceae)', Biotropica, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 227-229.
  • Cunningham, S 1991, 'Experimental evidence for pollination of Banksia spp. by non-flying mammals', Oecologia, vol. 87, pp. 86-90.